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Den orale sundhed blandt børn med astma

ABSTRACT

Oversigtsartikel Dato: 29.12.2015

Artiklen omhandler den orale sundhed blandt børn med astma. Astma er en hyppig kronisk luftvejssygdom. Tilstanden kræver ofte medicinsk behandling, og denne behandling – eller selve sygdommen – kan påvirke den orale tandsundhed. Netop vanskelighederne med at fastslå, om det er medicinen eller selve astmasygdommen, der påvirker den orale sundhed, kan være en udfordring for tandplejepersonalet, der skal vejlede forældre og børn. En anden udfordring i forhold til at kunne give relevante og kvalificerede vejledninger er, at den tilgængelige litteratur er karakteriseret ved at vise modsatrettede resultater. Man må derfor som fagperson forholde sig til hver enkelt patients situation og være varsom med at give alt for generelle anbefalinger, som der ikke er stærke holdepunkter for i litteraturen. Artiklen gennemgår den nyere litteratur i forhold til at belyse emnet.

Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood. The aetiology is not fully understood, but a central pathophysiologic feature is chronic inflammation in the respiratory mucosa, resulting in bronchial hyperactivity, varying degrees of airways obstruction, and increased mucous production. Treatment of asthma has improved considerably during recent years and often includes inhaled ß2-agonists and stereoids. This article reviews the literature on dental caries, enamel hypomineralization, gingivitis, dental erosions, and dental anxiety in children with asthma. Asthma may increase the risk of dental caries in the primary and the permanent dentition. It also seems that asthma is associated with hypomineralization. The literature does not give clear evidence that asthma increases the risk of erosions, but inhaled asthma medicine exist in forms with low pH and these forms can be exchanged with other forms with higher pH in asthma patients with signs of dental erosions. Asthma may be associated with gingivitis but the evidence is weak. Asthma may be associated with dental anxiety in children, probably due to unpleasant experiences in the health care system.

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