– Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare blood disease, which can affect skin, bone, internal organs, gingiva, eyes, ear and central nervous system. The disease is of unknown etiology and characterized by an abnormal high histiocyte count and tissue destruction. Langerhans cell histiocytosis exhibits a varying disease pattern from isolated bone lesions to a generalized condition with skin rash, organ involvement, pain and diabetes insipidus. The disease can initially appear in the oral cavity and jaws, but also appear secondary in the oral cavity in connection to a general condition. The diagnosis is verified by a histologic examination and treatment depends on the spread of the disease.
– A 42-year-old man was referred from the Haematology Department to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, for diagnosis of a 10 x 16 mm radiolucent lesion in the left side of the lower jaw. The patient had previously been diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. An excision biopsy verified the diagnosis Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the mandible. Treatment with local radiation therapy and intravenous injection of bisphosphonate was initiated.
– A defined radiolucent cavity in the mandible can represent different pathologic conditions. Clinical and radiologic examination in combination with histologic examination is required for a definite diagnosis.