Rygnings effekt på det immunologiske respons i forbindelse med marginal parodontitis

Oversigtsartikel Dato: 24.03.2009

I denne opgave fokuseres der på tobaksrygnings effekt på værtens forsvar ved marginal parodontitis. Først gives en kort be- skrivelse af mikroorganismernes indflydelse på udvikling af marginal parodontitis. herefter redegøres for det immunologi- ske respons, der følger mikroorganismernes kolonisation i pochen. efterfølgende ses nærmere på det generelle værtsforsvar og rygningens effekter på dette forsvar. Disse afsnit følges af en diskussion dels af de fundne resultaters værdi, dels af de fundne resultaters indvirkning på værtsforsvaret. på baggrund af diskussionen konklu- deres, hvilken effekt rygning kan siges at have på værtsforsvaret ved marginal parodontitis.

The effect of tobacco smoking on the host defence system in con- nection with periodontal disease: This assignment discusses the effect of tobacco smoking on the host defence system in connection with periodontal disease on the basis of investigations concerning cytokines, adhesion molecules, leucocytes, immunglobulins and vascularisation. The assignment explores studies concerning e.g. TNF- α and IL-1 α and - β which show both an increase and a decrease in the concentration of these in smokers. It is also found that smoking can have an influence on the concentration of endothelial ICAM-1 and soluble ICAM-1 and thus restrain the transportation of leucocytes through the endothelium. In some experiments, smoking is furthermore seen to have a restraining effect on the role of macrophages as antigen presenting cells, the activation of lymphocytes and the production of immunoglobulins. The function of polymorphonuclear cells is also found to be restrained in several investigations with respect to their mobilisation, transport through the endothelium and their fagocytosis of microbes. In addition, in most investigations, smoking is seen to cause vasoconstriction which results in redu- ced vascularization of the gingiva. The conclusion is that smoking has an important influence on the development of periodontal disease, and it is therefore essential that the dentist is capable of both informing his patients about the detrimental effects of smoking and motivating them to quit smoking.