Intake of dairy foods and oral health: review of epidemiological data

Oversigtsartikel Dato: 29.04.2017

Indtagelse af mejeriprodukter og oral sundhed: oversigt over epidemiologiske data
Baggrund – Sammenhængen mellem kost og det orale helbred er uafklaret. Nogle tidligere studier har fundet, at mejeriprodukter yder beskyttelse mod parodontale sygdomme, men de egentlige mekanismer bag disse sammenhænge er ikke helt klarlagte.

Formål – At gennemgå de tidligere studier, der har undersøgt sammenhænge mellem på den ene side indtagelse af mælk og andre mejeriprodukter, og på den anden forekomsten af plak, parodontal sygdom og tandtab.

Metode – Litteraturgennemgang med fokus på epidemiologiske studier af sammenhængen mellem indtag af mejeriprodukter og orale forhold hos voksne og ældre.

Resultater – Otte ud af ni inkluderede studier var tværsnitsstudier, og kun ét havde et longitudinelt design. Studierne tydede generelt på en sammenhæng mellem et lavt indtag af mejeriprodukter og en høj plakscore eller parodontal sygdom, mens der ikke sås konsistente sammenhænge i relation til tandtab. Alle studier omfattede hjemmeboende.

Konklusion – Kvaliteten af studierne var generelt moderat til lav, og kun ét studie var longitudinelt. Der er derfor stadig behov for, at nye langtidsstudier med god confounderkontrol gennemføres, før der kan drages endelige konklusioner omkring de mulige forebyggende effekter af et højt indtag af mejeriprodukter i forhold til forekomst af plak, parodontal sundhed og tandtab.

Klinisk relevans:

Oral health can be greatly enhanced by optimal daily oral hygiene and regular professional dental care. The role of diet, largely sugar consumption, on the development of dental plaque and its potential to increase dental disease has been known for some time, but original research of a good quality on this is surprisingly scarce. Many studies are decades old and would not meet modern criteria of quality or ethics. Therefore an overview of current research into this area is needed to equip clinicians with the knowledge they need to inform and support their patients. This paper provides such data, mostly in relation to dairy products. Clinician’s will be able to judge for themselves the quality of the evidence sourced and presented here and subsequently trust that the messages that they are passing on to patients are based on current, peer reviewed, ethically sound research. Equally from the information provided here, clinical dental researchers will be able to identify promising areas for further much needed research into diet as a modifiable variable, using research methods not yet employed in this area, such as randomized controlled trials or longitudinal studies.

Introduction – The relationship between diet and oral health is intriguing. Various components of milk have been suggested to be protective against oral health problems, although specific mechanisms linking dairy components to the pathogenesis of certain diseases are still unclear.

Purpose – To provide an overview of the associations between intake of milk and dairy products and dental plaque, periodontal disease and tooth loss, based on currently available literature. Method – We performed a review of relevant literature with critical appraisal of those human epidemiological studies evaluating the association between intake of milk or dairy products and periodontal disease, plaque score or tooth loss among adults and elderly.

Results – Nine studies were included in the review, eight of which were cross-sectional and only one applied a longitudinal design. None of the studies included institutionalised participants. Overall, reported studies suggested an inverse association between dairy intake and plaque score and periodontal disease. Results related to tooth loss were inclusive.

Conclusion – The methodological quality of reviewed studies was moderate to low with only one longitudinal design. Therefore, welldesigned, confounding-controlled, longitudinal studies are warranted to be able to evaluate the potential protective effect of dairy intake on periodontal disease, dental plaque and tooth loss.